Lignin is a complex and abundant organic polymer found in the cell walls of plants. It is the second most abundant renewable carbon source on Earth, after cellulose. Lignin provides structural support to plants and plays a crucial role in their growth and development.

Product Code GAC-L
AppearanceBrown powder
Dr matter95%around

Chemical Composition

Lignin is composed of aromatic building blocks called monolignols, which are synthesized in plants through the phenylpropanoid pathway. The three main types of monolignols are coniferyl alcohol, sinapyl alcohol, and p-coumaryl alcohol. These monolignols combine to form different types of lignin with varying chemical structures.

Plant Function

Lignin plays a vital role in the structural integrity of plants, providing strength and rigidity to their cell walls. It acts as a glue-like substance that holds the cellulose fibers and other components together, giving support to the plant and allowing it to stand upright.


Lignin is present in various types of plant materials, including wood, bark, stems, leaves, and agricultural residues. It is particularly abundant in woody tissues, where it can account for up to 30% or more of the plant’s dry weight.


Lignin is resistant to microbial degradation and enzymatic breakdown, making it highly resistant to decomposition. Its complex and cross-linked structure makes it challenging to break down by most organisms. However, certain fungi and bacteria possess enzymes, known as ligninolytic enzymes, that can break down lignin.

Industrial Applications

Lignin has gained significant interest as a renewable and sustainable resource with various industrial applications, including:

  • Pulp and Paper: Lignin is a byproduct of the pulping process in the paper industry. It is used as a fuel, as well as a source of chemicals and materials.
  • Bioenergy: Lignin can be used as a feedstock for the production of biofuels and bioenergy through processes such as pyrolysis, gasification, and fermentation.
  • Chemicals and Materials: Lignin can be chemically modified or processed to obtain a range of valuable chemicals, such as phenolic compounds, resins, adhesives, and carbon fibers. It can also be used in the production of renewable plastics and composites.
  • Agriculture and Animal Feed: Lignin-rich agricultural residues, such as straw and corn stover, can be utilized as animal feed, bedding material, or as a source of bio-based fertilizers.

Environmental Impact

Lignin has the potential to contribute to the development of a bio-based economy and reduce dependence on fossil resources. Its utilization as a renewable feedstock can help mitigate environmental issues associated with fossil fuel extraction and contribute to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions.