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Ammonium Lignosulfonate Used in Dyes industry

It is known to employ lignosulfonate compounds, including sodium salts of lignosulfonates, as an additive, such as a dispersant, in textile dyestuffs and printing pigments. Such lignosulfonate compounds are generally produced as a by-product of the wood pulping industry by either the sulfite or kraft process.

Such sulfonated lignin products provide three basic functions in dyestuff compositions:

(1) They assist in reducing the dye particles to a fine size;

(2) They maintain a dispersing medium for the dyestuff; and

(3) They are used as a diluent.The advantages of employing sulfonated lignins as dispersants in dyestuff compositions are based on their unique physical properties which include good compatibility with many dye systems, outstanding dispersant characteristics at ambient and elevated temperatures, and availability. There are certain disadvantages in employing lignins, whether they are sulfite lignins or sulfonated kraft lignins, as dispersants.

Negative factors in the use of such lignins as dyestuff additives relate to problems of high inorganic salt content, i.e., electrolyte content, when lowered in pH, foaming, high pH, fiber staining, poor heat stability, and high viscosity.

These adverse properties are troublesome to dyers and many attempts have been made to overcome these and other disadvantages.Inorganic electrolyte content of lignin dispersants and dyestuff additives greatly effect their use in a specific dyestuff additive formulation. High electrolyte content of a lignin dispersant imposes unwanted side effects on hydrophobic dyestuffs. In vat dyes, high salt content of the lignin additives can cause harmful rheological effects during storage of the dyes.

The viscosity of the oxidized form in the presence of salts generally increases to a level where the dye mixture can only be removed from a storage container with considerable difficulty.

Recent use in this country of double strength dyes over powder dyes has necessitated a reduced application level of the lignin dispersants in order to accomodate the increased amount of dye, thus dictating that the dispersant be in its purest state possible.A number of technological developments have resulted in new methods and processes to modify sulfonated lignins to reduce the negative aspects of employing such materials as dye dispersants without simultaneously causing any major adverse effects upon those properties which render sulfonated lignins desirable as dyestuff dispersants.

In the paper industry, lignin is obtained as a by-product from spent pulping liquors, known as black liquor, where lignocellulosic materials, such as wood, straw, cornstalks, bagasse and the like are processed to separate the cellulosic pulp from the lignin. The lignins employed in the process of this invention may readily be obtained from the kraft wood pulping process wherein the natural lignin is present as a sodium salt. In kraft pulping, the wood is subjected to the effects of strong alkali. The lignin forms a soluble sodium salt in the alkaline region which is separated from the cellulose and dissolves in the pulping liquor. The lignin is then recovered from the black liquor by acidification.

Acidification of black liquor containing the lignin salt generally may be accomplished by the introduction of carbon dioxide which converts the phenolic hydroxide groups on the lignin molecule, which are in ionized form, into their free phenolic or acidic form. This conversion renders the lignin insoluble in the black liquor and, as a result, it precipitates out. To precipitate the alkali lignins from the black liquor as water-insoluble products, black liquor initially having a pH of around 13.0 is acidified to about a pH of 10.5 at which point the lignin begins to precipitate. The lignin precipitate can be further purified by reducing the pH level to pH 2, where the lignin is coagulated and washed with water to obtain a lignin product identified as “A” lignin.

Calcium lignosulfonate

Calcium Lignosulfonate Chemical characterization

1. Composition

Lignin is the second largest component of wood. It is a highly polymerized material that makes up the middle lamella of woody fibers and holds the fibers together.

The basic units of the polymeric structure consist of three aromatic propenyl alcohols (monolignols): coniferyl alcohol (4-(3-hydroxy-1-propenyl)- 2-methoxyphenol), p-coumaryl alcohol (4-[(E)-3-hydroxyprop-1-enyl]phenol), and sinapyl alcohol (4- hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxycinnamyl alcohol), of which coniferyl alcohol represents the principle unit in lignin.

Methoxy groups are abundant on the polymeric structure providing many reactive sites and promoting its low water solubility. In calcium lignosulfonate (40-65), however, sulfonate groups are attached to the alkane
backbone units to confer water solubility and calcium anions, introduced with the calcium sulfite during the process of manufacture, stabilize them.

The degree of sulfonation on the alkane backbone has also been
established as a criterion for the identification of the additive. An upper limit of 5.0 % for calcium content was also set.

Ultraviolet spectroscopy confirms the presence of phenyl groups in the additive and infrared spectroscopy reveals bands characteristic of sulfonate at 1210-1220 cm-1, 1037 cm-1, and 655 cm-1.

A proposed structure of the polymeric fraction of calcium lignosulfonate (40-65) is presented in Figure 5.1. Representative IR and UV spectra are presented in Figures 5.2 and 5.3, respectively.

2 Impurities (including degradation products)

Impurities in calcium lignosulfonate (40-65) include monosaccharides from wood cellulose, sulfite residues and potentially arsenic and various metallic elements. Filtration, evaporation and ultrafiltration aim at reducing the content in the final product to not more than 5 % reducing sugars and not more than 0.5 % sulfite, on the dried basis, which are the bases for the establishment of corresponding limits in the specifications monograph.

A typical analysis provided by the sponsor of a single sample of the additive
showed the presence of the following reducing sugars: mannose (2.2 %), xylose (1.1 %), galactose (0.6 %),glucose (0.4 %), arabinose (0.3 %), and rhamnose (0.1%). The specifications monograph also contains maximum limits on Loss on drying (8.0 %), Total ash (14.0%), arsenic (1 mg/kg), and lead (2 mg/kg).

lignosulfonate used in oil drilling

Lignosulfonates used in oil drilling

In oil drilling,If you drill in formations that have a lot of bentonite , you may need to use lignosulfonate mud (freshwater lignite mud). Bentonite in the formations are easily dispersed by water and bentonite will increase dispersion viscosity and rheology .

The lignite was added to the slurry water will control this problem and it is not expensive. Many people like to use this mud because it can be a weighting factor to nearly 19 PPG, but he still has very low value of low gravity solids .

You still have some drawbacks of this system. Lignosulfonate mud was not the stability of shale as other than low solids non-dispersed fluid mud PHPA, KCL base mud, and salt water system. In addition, certain additives such as carbonate can cause contamination in the mud and the mud properties deteriorate. You must be careful when using lignosulfonate mud with some chemical additives.

In the oil refining and oil industry for drilling oil and gas wells lignosulfonates are used as a reagent to control the basic parameters of drilling fluids. Also, they are a component of gelling systems, which are low-viscosity solutions with pH 2.5-3.0.

The formation of the gel leads to the redistribution of filtration flows and their better management, alignment profile pick-injection wells, restriction of water in the process, which in turn increases the recovery of oil. Using these systems lignosulfonates is possible by adsorbing properties of surface-active additives.

Just as in the mining industry, technical lignosulfonates are used to enhance various types of structures: mud pits, wells, etc.

Technical lignosulfonates are used:

  1. in chemical industry – as the stabilizer, dispersing agent for manufacture of briquetted means of plants protection; 
  2. in oil industry – as reagent for regulation of drilling agent;
  3. in foundry  – as a binding material for formation of casting  molds, an additive for  non-stick paints;
  4. in cement industry and manufacture of castables  – as cement softener and  binding material.

Technical requirements

Are developed according to TU 2455-028-00279580-2004. Technical lignosulfonates are produced in liquid and powder form.

Lignosulfonate used in Agriculture

Lignosulfonate used in Agriculture

Lignosulfonate used in agriculture,suggested potassium lignosulfonate,ammonium lignosulfonate.

1.Lignosulfonate helps create a desirable soil structure that facilitates water infiltration and helps hold water within the root zone.

2.Lignosulfonate and    stabilize or assists in the degradation of toxic substances such as: nicotine, aflatoxins, anti tics, shallots, and most organic pesticides.

3.Lignosulfonate have a very pronounced influence on the growth of plant roots. When Lignosulfonates and/or Lignosulfonates are applied to soil enhancement of root initiation and increased root growth.

4.Lignosulfonates are excellent foliar fertiliser carriers and activators. Their application in combination with trace elements and other plant nutrients, as foliar sprays, can improve the growth of plant foliage, roots, and fruits.

5.Regulate pH of soil and increase soil fertility.

The optimum pH range for most plants is between 5.5 and 7.0,Humus has direct function to balance the pH of soil,to make soil pH suitable for plants growth.
Humus could largely stabilized nitrogen storage and slow release,P is release from AL +in soil,also other microelement is in the form of easy-available by plants, meanwhile the beneficial fungi is active to produce different kind enzymes. to help to create a crumble structure of soil to increase macro elements and micro elements binding capacity and water holding capacity ,thus increase soil fertility.

6.Create good living environment for microbial mass.

  Lignosulfonate could directly improve soil structure thus to create good environment for microbial mas living environment,thus these microbial mas production will help to improve soil structure.

7.Promote the development of chlorophyll, sugars and amino acids in plants and aid in photosynthesis.

8.Stimulate seed germination in short time,Greatly increase harvest and fruits quality.

9.Greatly increase plants’ capability countering stress and disease.

Lignosulfonate can mobilize K absorption to regulate the stomata open and close on the leaves also promote metabolism, thus increase the plants’ ability under stressed conditions.

Lignosulfonate used as plasticizer

Lignosulfonate used as plasticizer

Lignosulfonate and modified Lignosulfonate superplasticizer are anionic surface active substances, on the adsorption and dispersion of cement, concrete can improve various physical performance. Reusable dubbed early strength agent, retarder, antifreeze, pumping agent, and naphthalene superplasticizer compound made of liquid admixtures basically no precipitate.
Key Features
1.Lignosulfonate superplasticizer dosage of cement content 0.20-0.30%, commonly used dosage is 0.25% water reduction of up to 9-11%. In the appropriate dosage when compared with the reference concrete strength increased by 15-20% 3 days, 7 days strength increased 20-30%, 28 days by 15-20%, long-term strength also increased.
2.Without changing the water in the case of concrete( suggested ratio 0.65)1to increase the flow of concrete, improved work-ability.
3.In keeping concrete slump, the same intensity and the reference concrete, cement can save 8-10%, the use of one ton of Lignosulfonate superplasticizer powder, can save 30-40 tons of cement.
4.In the standard state, concrete mixed with this agent may delay compared with the reference concrete setting time of concrete more than 3 hours, the final setting time of 3 hours, the peak heat of hydration delayed more than five hours, is conducive to summer construction and commodity concrete transport and mass concrete.
5.Lignosulfonate superplasticizer with micro-entraining, can improve the impermeability of concrete freeze-thaw performance.
6.After the agent mixed concrete and aggregates of reinforced non-corrosive.

7.Increase its water dispersion capacity to avoidwater bubble inside the slump. 
Suitable for concrete, high fluidity concrete, pumping concrete, concrete products and concrete construction in summer as well as retarding the special requirements of concrete, concrete piles, concrete piles sink, hand-dug piles of concrete and underground bulk concrete construction, with good economic benefits.
1 .Dosage is0.25- 0.50% by weight of cement, recommended dosage of 0.25%.
2.Powder can be added directly to the cement, sand, gravel in the dry mix, even after the addition of water for mixing, stirring time should be extended, to avoid uneven mixing. Powder can be prepared in advance a certain concentration of the solution, in liquid form to join, but attention should be deducted from the total water consumption of concrete.
3.Users when using this product according to the specific construction conditions (construction season, construction materials, etc.) with reference to the description of the concrete mix to make the necessary tests to obtain the best results.